By John D. Barrow
“Where else does math develop into a romp, jam-packed with unique tips and turns?”—Bryce Christensen, Booklist
Have you ever thought of why you usually get caught within the longest line? Why two’s corporation yet three’s a crowd? Or why there are six levels of separation rather than seven? during this highly informative and without end interesting booklet, John D. Barrow takes the main baffling of daily phenomena and—with simple arithmetic, lucid factors, and illustrations—explains why they paintings the best way they do. His witty, crystal-clear solutions make clear the darkish and shadowy corners of the actual global all of us imagine we comprehend so good. forty b/w illustrations
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Extra resources for 100 Essential Things You Didn't Know You Didn't Know: Math Explains Your World
Temperatures in the range 1400-2100°F (760-1148°C) and times from 1 to 24 hr are employed depending on the substrate material and the desired coating composition and thickness. As can be expected, the overall system pressure controls the rate of coating element transfer in this process. Large transfer rates can be achieved by employing a "good" vacuum. On the other hand, the coating element transfer rate can be reduced by operating the system under partial vacuum. The effects of system pressure and temperature on thickness of an aluminide coating on aNi-base superalloy are shown in Fig.
Mass Transfer in Aluminide Phases Some information is available in the literature on growth kinetics of the aluminide phases commonly found in pack coatings on Ni-base alloys. Much of the information was obtained through annealing experiments involving solid-solid diffusion couples containing no alloying elements. Although the pack cementation operation involves diffusion in a vapor-solid couple, and a number of alloying elements are normally present in the coating and the substrate, the data acquired through idealized diffusion studies are quite useful in interpreting features of complex coatings.
R----.. z C CI 7 I- % CI • i&j 6 5 30 40 50 60 70 PACK POROSITY (%1 Fig. 14. Effect of pack porosity on the amount of coating deposited on an Fe-based alloy CRM-15D at 1000"F for 10hr. 65 important factor (Fig. 14). Brill-Edwards and Epner noticed, however, that at high temperatures, the porosity had little influence on the deposition rate. Brill-Edwards and Epner found that the microstructural features of the substrate surface had significant influence on the deposition process. The nonuniform coatings obtained at low temperatures (near 1200°F or 650°C) showed the following characteristic features: (a) grain centers and phase boundaries were the preferential sites for deposition; (b) deposition on secondary carbides was minimal even after long times; (c) gross variations were present in the thickness of the deposit.
100 Essential Things You Didn't Know You Didn't Know: Math Explains Your World by John D. Barrow